The Effect of the Norman Conquest on Anglo-Saxon Garden Design

The arrival of the Normans in the second half of the eleventh century irreparably altered The Anglo-Saxon lifestyle. The talent of the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons' in design and farming at the time of the conquest. However the Normans had to pacify the entire territory before they could concentrate on home life, domestic architecture, and decoration. angel cherub__67925.original.jpg Monasteries and castles served different functions, so while monasteries were enormous stone structures built in only the most fruitful, wide dales, castles were set upon blustery knolls where the people focused on understanding offensive and defensive tactics. Gardening, a placid occupation, was unfeasible in these fruitless fortifications. Berkeley Castle, potentially the most pristine model of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture, still exists now. The keep is thought to date from the time of William the Conqueror. As a method of deterring attackers from tunneling beneath the walls, an immense terrace surrounds the building. One of these terraces, a charming bowling green, is covered grass and flanked by an old yew hedge cut into the shape of crude battlements.

Stand-Alone Water Fountains: Are They Practical?

Since self-contained fountains are both affordable and easy to install, they are very popular. Since all materials are included with the fountain, no extra parts are required. One name for a fountain having its own water supply is known as “self-contained”.

Stand-alone water fountains are rather easy to set up making them the ideal option for your patio or veranda. Since they are versatile, it is easy to relocate them whenever you want.

The first thing the landscaper will need to find out is whether or not the land is flat.

Lawns and gardens tend to be uneven so your landscaper will have to level the spot where you want to put it. The next step is to put your water element in place and add water. It is now time to plug it in using either an electrical socket, a solar panel, or batteries.

Since it is stand-alone and does not need an external water source or plumbing, a self-contained fountain is perfect for anyone looking for ease and convenience. Lots of people position them in the center of the garden, but they can really go anywhere. You will find them in myriad differing materials such as cast stone, metal, ceramic, and fiberglass.

The Original Fountain Designers

Often working as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and cultivated scholars all in one, from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century, fountain designers were multi-faceted people, Exemplifying the Renaissance skilled artist as a imaginative genius, Leonardo da Vinci worked as an inventor and scientific expert. He carefully documented his observations in his currently recognized notebooks, following his enormous fascination in the forces of nature inspired him to investigate the properties and motion of water. Remodeling private villa settings into amazing water exhibits complete with symbolic interpretation and natural beauty, early Italian water feature designers coupled imagination with hydraulic and horticultural expertise. The humanist Pirro Ligorio provided the vision behind the splendors in Tivoli and was distinguished for his skill in archeology, architecture and garden concepts. For the assorted lands near Florence, other water feature engineers were well versed in humanist topics and classical technical texts, masterminding the excellent water marbles, water features and water antics.

Agrippa's Amazing, but Mostly Forgotten Water-Lifting System

Unfortunately, Agrippa’s great plan for lifting water was not cited a great deal following 1588, when Andrea Bacci acknowledged it openly. It may have come to be outdated when the Villa Medici was in a position to get water from the Acqua Felice, the early contemporary aqueduct, in 1592. This becomes all the more heartbreaking bearing in mind how amazing Camillo Agrippa’s device was, totally unique in Italy during the hundreds of years which passed between the fall of ancient Rome and the contemporary period. While there were other worthwhile water-driven concepts either designed or built during the late sixteenth century, including scenographic water features, giochi d’acqua or water caprices, and melodious water features, none was fed by water like Agrippa’s device.

Modern Water Fountains And Public Policy

Berkley, CA citizens voted for a sugar-sweetened beverages tax in February 2014, the earliest of its kind in the United States.

By making soda more costly, it’s assumed that people will make healthier choices for what their children drink, like water for instance. Efforts were made to find out the status of local drinking water fountains in both high- and low-income neighborhoods. The study utilized a GPS app to compile data on existing water fountains in the city. This info was cross-referenced with demographic records on race and income collected from the US Census Community Study database. The analysts looked to use both data sets to figure out if demographics were interconnected to drinking water fountain access. The neighboring demographics of every single water fountain location was made note of, while also ensuring whether race or income rates made a huge difference in the state of repair of each fountain. The cleanliness of various fountains was found wanting, even if most were working.


The Distribution of Garden Water Fountains Engineering Knowledge in Europe
Throughout the European countries, the primary means of dissiminating practical hydraulic understanding and fountain design ideas were the published... read more
Water-lifting Tool by Camillo Agrippa
The praise Agrippa’s water-lifting innovation earned by Andrea Bacci in 1588 was temporal. It may be that the Acqua Felice, the second of Rome’s initial modern aqueducts made the device... read more
Archaic Greek Art: Outdoor Statuary
The Archaic Greeks manufactured the first freestanding statuary, an amazing achievement as most sculptures up until then had been reliefs cut into walls and pillars. ... read more